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Biology Department

Description of the Academic Programs

The Department of Biology offers a baccalaureate degree in Biology. The program exposes students to the major fields of biological sciences, and develops skills of analytical thinking, initiative, and scientific creativity in the students, preparing them for careers in teaching, research, and medical technology. It also prepares individuals to pursue post-graduate studies in biology and other related fields. In addition the Department offers minors in Biology and Medical Laboratory Sciences, and also offers service courses for the Faculty of Nursing.

Credits needed for the degree

A student majoring in Biology needs to earn a total of 129 credits distributed as follows.

Category

Credits

Major

47

Minor

26

 Faculty Requirements

 22

University Requirements

34

Total

129

 

The Biology major consists of a total of 69 credits to include all the required biology major courses (41 Cr.) listed in the tables below and a minimum of 6 credit courses to be selected from the electives list, as well as 22 credits of faculty requirements.

Major in Biology


Required Biology Major Courses (41 Cr.)

BIOL 001

Laboratory for Biology 141 (R)

BIOL 222

Method of Sc. Writ. and Rep. (1)

BIOL 003

Laboratory for Biology 242 (R)

BIOL 240

General Zoology (4)

BIOL 006

Laboratory for Biology 243 (R)

BIOL 242

General Animal Physiology (4)

BIOL 012

Laboratory for Biology 331 (R)

BIOL 243

Plant Anat. and Systematic (4)

BIOL 013

Laboratory for Biology 341 (R)

BIOL 244

Plant Physiology (4)

BIOL 017

Laboratory for Biology 244 (R)

BIOL 321

Biostatistics (3)

BIOL 019

Laboratory for Biology 143 (R)

BIOL 331

General Microbiology (3)

BIOL 020

Laboratory for Biology 240 (R)

BIOL 341

General Biochemistry (4)

BIOL 141

Principles of Biology I (4)

BIOL 343

General Genetics (4)

BIOL 143

Principles of Biology II (4)

BIOL 389

Senior Seminar (1)

 

 

BIOL 411

Bioreading (1)

 

Elective Biology Major Courses (6 Cr.)

BIOL 010

Laboratory for Biology 235 (R)

BIOL 336

Animal Behavior (3)

BIOL 018

Laboratory for Biology 231 (R)

BIOL 337

Topics in Cell Biology (3)

BIOL 021

Laboratory for Biology 412 (R)

BIOL 339

Immunology (3)

BIOL 231

Basic Histology (3)

BIOL 342

Developmental Biology (3)

BIOL 235

Invertebrate Biology (3)

BIOL 399

Selected Topics in Biology (1 or 2)

BIOL 333

Ecology with field excursions (3)

BIOL 412

Biotech. and Tissue Cult. Tech. (3)

 

N.B. All Medical Laboratory Sciences courses could be considered part of the Biology major if the student’s minor is not Medical Laboratory Sciences.

Faculty of Science Required Courses (22 Cr.)

CHEM 113

General Chemistry Lab (1)

PHYS 113

Laboratory Practice (1)

CHEM 131

General Chemistry I (3)

PHYS 131

General Physics I (3)

CHEM 132

General Chemistry II (3)

MATH 141

Calculus & A. Geometry I (4)

CHEM 221

Laboratory for Chemistry 231 (1)

 CAIS 131

Computer Programming (3)

CHEM 231

Organic Chemistry I (3)

 

 

 

Students majoring in Biology are provided the opportunity to minor in a discipline other than their major field.

A student may also take any minor offered by the Faculty of Science, such as Medical Laboratory Sciences, Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Information Systems, and Physics.

For Acceptance to Major Criteria refer to #9 under Academic Regulations.

Paradigm of courses: Bachelor of Science in Biology

 

First Year

FALL SEMESTER

CR

SPRING SEMESTER

 CR

BIOL 001

Laboratory for Biology 141

R

BIOL 019

Laboratory for Biology 143

R

BIOL 141

Principles of Biology I

4

BIOL 143

Principles of Biology II

4

ARAB 120

Arabic Language Skills I

3

ARAB 121

Arabic Language Skills II

3

ENGL 120

English Language Skills I

3

ENGL 121

English Language Skills II

3

MATH 141

Calculus I

4

CHEM 113

General Chemistry lab.

1

PSED 101

Physical Education

1

CHEM 131

General Chemistry I

3

LIBR 101

Library Skills

R

CAIS 131

Computer Programming

3

 

 

15

 

 

17

 

SUMMER SEMESTER

CR

CHEM 132

General Chemistry II

 3

 

Second Year

FALL SEMESTER

CR

SPRING SEMESTER

CR

BIOL 020

 Laboratory for Biology 240

R

 BIOL 006

Laboratory for Biology 243

R

BIOL 240

General Zoology

4

BIOL 222

Scientific Writ. & Report.

1

CHEM 221

 Lab for CHEM 231

1

 BIOL 243

Plant Anatomy and Syst.

4

CHEM 231

 Organic Chemistry I

3

ENGL 213

English Language Skills III

3

PHYS 133

 General Physics I

3

PHYS 113

Laboratory Practice

1

HIST 120

 History of Modern Palestine

3

CMSR 101

Community Service

1

 MLSC 221

 Minor

2

 ARTI 101

Fine Arts Requirement

2

 

 

 

 MLSC 241

Minor

4

 

 

16

 

 

16

 

Third Year

FALL SEMESTER

CR

SPRING SEMESTER

CR

 BIOL 012

Laboratory for Biology 331

R

BIOL 321

Biostatistics

3

 BIOL 331

General Microbiology

3

 BIOL 242

General Animal Physiology

4

BIOL 343

General Genetics

4

 MLSC 343

Minor

4

 PHIL 302

Issues in Phil. and Ethics

3

MLSC 342

Minor

4

 

Major Elective

3

 MLSC 004

Minor

0

 MLSC 341

Minor

4

 MLSC 005

Minor

0

 

 

 

BIOL 003

Laboratory for Biology 242

 R

 

 

17

 

 

15

 

Fourth Year

FALL SEMESTER

CR

SPRING SEMESTER

CR

BIOL 013

Laboratory for Biology 341

0

BIOL 389

Senior Seminar

1

BIOL 017

Laboratory for Biology 244

R

POLS 300

Themes in Political Sc.

3

BIOL 244

Plant Physiology

4

ECON 300

Basic Economics

3

BIOL 341

General Biochemistry

4

 

 Major elective

3

BIOL 411

Bioreading

1

 MLSC 441

Minor

4

RELS 300

Cultural Religious Studies

3

 MLSC 411

Minor

1

 MLSC 431

Minor

3

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

15

 

 

Minors offered by the Department of Biology

In addition to the major in Biology, the Biology Department provides the opportunity for all students to join the program toward minors in Medical Technology and Biology.

Students majoring in Biology are provided the opportunity to minor in a discipline other than their major field. A student may take a minor program consisting of 24-26 credits offered by the Faculty of Science, such as Medical Laboratory Sciences, Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Information System, and Physics.

Minor in Medical Laboratory Sciences

To earn this minor, students are required to successfully complete the following 26 credits and no general elective.

MLSC 001

Lab. For MLSC 221 (R)

MLSC 221

Body Fluids (2)

MLSC 002

Lab. For MLSC 241 (R)

MLSC 241

Clinical Hematology (4)

MLSC 003

Lab. For MLSC 341 (R)

MLSC 341

Medical Parasitology (4)

MLSC 004

Lab. For MLSC 342 (R)

MLSC 342

Diagnostic Microbiology (4)

MLSC 005

Lab. For MLSC 343 (R)

MLSC 343

Immunology and Serology (4)

MLSC 006

Lab. For MLSC 431 (R)

MLSC 411

Field Training (1)

MLSC 007

Lab. For MLSC 441 (R)

MLSC 431

Blood Banking (3)

 

 

MLSC 441

Clinical Chemistry (4)

 

Minor in Biology

To earn this minor, students are required to successfully complete 24 credits from the following courses:

BIOL 006

Laboratory for Biology 243 (R)

BIOL 240

General Zoology (4)

BIOL 012

Laboratory for Biology 331 (R)

BIOL 243

Plant Anatomy and Syst. (4)

BIOL 013

Laboratory for Biology 341 (R)

BIOL 331

General Microbiology (3)

BIOL 019

Laboratory for Biology 143(R)

BIOL 341

General Biochemistry (4)

BIOL 020

Laboratory for Biology 240 (R)

BIOL 343

General Genetics (4)

BIOL 143

Principles of Bio. II (4)

BIOL 399

Selected Topics in Biology (1)

 

Description of courses

BIOL 141: Principles of Biology I with Lab (Cr. 4)

The course provides a survey of the main characteristics of living systems, and stresses the physico-chemical principles that underlie their functioning. Practical work acquaints students with basic experimental procedures with emphasis on the scientific method and microscopy.

BIOL 143: Principles of Biology II with Lab (Cr. 4)

The course deals with selected aspects of life at the whole organism and species level rather than at the cellular level. It focuses on the principles of evolution and population genetics, diversity of the major groups of living organisms within the five kingdoms, as well as on the general structure and behavior of organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 222: Methodology of Scientific Writing and Reporting (Cr. 1)

The course introduces the cardinal principles of organization and presentation of scientific information. Emphasis is on oral presentation of data in the life sciences seminar and on writing lab reports. Prerequisite: Second year students, consent of instructor

BIOL 231: Basic Histology with Lab (Cr. 3)

The theory and practice of preparing histological slides are covered. The lab sessions concentrate on the light microscopic study of tissues using primarily the paraffin method for preparing slides. Prerequisite: BIOL 240

BIOL 232: Introductory Geology (Cr. 3)

This course studies geological principles which form the basis for modern developments in the earth sciences. Students learn to appreciate the dynamic nature of Planet Earth, recognizing the processes involved over its 4.7 billion year history that account for the present physical state of the planet. Practical field and laboratory experience enhance an understanding of the local geological scene and recognize the essential economic importance of this discipline. Elective for science students

BIOL 235: Invertebrate Biology with Lab (Cr. 3)

A study of the phylogeny, classification, morphology, physiology, and ecology of invertebrates. The lab includes identification of important invertebrates from the local fauna through dissection and microscopic examination. Prerequisite: BIOL 143

BIOL 240: General Zoology with Lab (Cr. 4)

The course emphasizes the diversity and interrelationships among species, contrasting living species with their extinct ancestors, and tracing the similarities among chordates that bear clear witness to their common ancestry. Interactions of organisms and their environment are discussed. Demonstrations and dissecting of live specimens are used in the practicum part of the course. Prerequisite: BIOL 143

BIOL 242: General Animal Physiology with Lab (Cr. 4)

This course complements BIOL 240 and extends the scope to include invertebrates. It attempts to show how the patterns of organization represented by the different phyla are adapted to meet basically similar physiological needs. The areas covered are movement and coordination, nutrition and respiration, water relationships, reproduction, and the endocrine systems. Prerequisite: BIOL 240

BIOL 243: Plant Anatomy and Systematic with Lab (Cr. 4)

The general morphology and anatomy of tracheophytes is studied first. This is followed by an overview of algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and gymnosperms, with emphasis on the increasing complexity of the soma and reproductive systems leading to the emergence of angiosperms. The classification of angiosperms by floral characteristics completes the course. Prerequisite: BIOL 143

BIOL 244: Plant Physiology with Lab (Cr. 4)

The course deals with the structural aspects of a plant cell in relation to the physiology of the plant with emphasis on plant cell wall structure. The course also covers the following areas of plant physiology: water relations, nutrient absorption, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis and its bioenergetics, and plant growth and development. Prerequisite: BIOL 243

BIOL 251, 252: Human Anatomy and Physiology I, II (Cr. 3,3)

The first semester course includes skeletal, muscular, neurosensory, and respiratory systems. The second semester includes circulation, electrolyte balance and excretion, the digestive, reproductive and endocrine systems. Emphasis is on detailed anatomy and functional physiology. For nursing students only Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 253: Nutrition and Dietetics (Cr. 3)

The course establishes an understanding of the place of nutrition in the promotion of growth and maintenance of health and in the processes of repair and convalescence. Applications are made to the nutritional needs of the local culture. For nursing students only Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 254: Applied Microbiology with Lab (Cr. 3)

This course presents the principles of microbiology related to microbial growth, pathogenicity, immunology, and the welfare of human beings. For nursing students only Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 321: Biostatistics (Cr. 2)

This course presents the basic principles of statistical analysis and their application to biological data analysis. This includes probability, distribution analysis of variance, regression, and correlation.

BIOL 331: General Microbiology with Lab (Cr. 3)

The course is a survey of the systematic of the protista and adaptive radiation within the group. Fungi are dealt with briefly. Considerable attention is given to the prokaryotes, their classification, identification, and culture. Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 333: Ecology with field excursions (Cr. 3)

Attention is mainly directed to the rich local areas of maquis, batha, and desert. Methods of sampling, statistical analysis of observations, and the setting up of ecological experiments are covered. Students are required to undertake a project and submit a written report as part of the course work, as well as contributing to the compiling of species lists and identification guides for use of people in the area. Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 336: Animal Behavior (Cr. 3)

This course covers a variety of animal behaviors and emphasizes the genetic and physiological basis underlying the behavioral systems. Emphasis is placed on the methodological problems encountered in the measurement, description, and hypothesis testing of complex interactive systems.

BIOL 337: Topics in Cell Biology (Cr. 3)

This course covers the structure and function of the living cells and cellular organelles, molecular composition, and metabolic activities of cellular components, including energetic, flow of information, and control mechanisms. Prerequisite: Acceptance to major

BIOL 339: Immunology (Cr. 3)

This course introduces students to the basic concepts of immunology, humeral, and cell-mediated immunity. Special emphasis is given to the aspects of tolerance, histo-compatibility, antigen, and immune interactions. Prerequisite: BIOL 331

BIOL 341: General Biochemistry with Lab (Cr. 4)

This course is offered to third- and fourth-year majors. The structures of major biomolecules are discussed, followed by a survey of intermediary metabolism and its regulation. Current areas of investigation are introduced. Prerequisite: CHEM 231

BIOL 342: Developmental Biology (Cr. 3)

The course is presented as an investigation of the fundamental problems of differentiation. Classic embryological studies are selectively described, only material from both animal and plant kingdoms is used. Prerequisite: BIOL 241

BIOL 343: General Genetics (Cr. 4)

A general course covering molecular, cellular, organismic, and population aspects of genetics. The laboratory consists of techniques in culturing traditional organisms used in the study of genetics, as well as biochemical and cytological procedures to investigate genetic phenomena. Prerequisite: Acceptance to major

BIOL 345: Geohydrology (Cr. 3)

The science of geohydrology deals with one of the most important and sensitive issues in the region. This course provides an introduction to the study of water resources stored in the ground and made available naturally as springs or by drilling wells. Practical fieldwork includes measurements and calculations of precipitation data, spring discharge, and surface flow as well as familiarity with well logging and pump testing procedures conducted by the Palestinian Water Authority. Elective for Science students Prerequisite: for non-Science students, consent of instructor

BIOL 346: Paleontology (Cr. 3)

This course is a general introduction to a study of the fossil record. Students will be led to appreciate the environments in which the main fossil groups once lived and how successive generations responded to changes in the environment. Field and laboratory work develop the skills of collecting, recording, processing, and displaying palaeontological specimens. The significance of this discipline for any constructional undertaking, for oil and water exploration, and for other economic or environmental issues is explained. Elective for science students. Consent of the instructor required

BIOL 389: Senior Seminar (Cr. 1)

Senior students present a literature survey or research results on a topic chosen in consultation with the advisor.

BIOL 399: Selected Topics in Biology (Cr. 1, 2)

An independent study course offered to seniors of high standing. Topics are selected by the instructor according to the ability and interest of the individual student. Students meet for a weekly conference and they must complete the study program by the end of the semester. Prerequisite: Approval of the Chairperson

BIOL 411: Bioreading (Cr. 1)

This course introduces students to various types of publications in biology through reading and discussing selected papers in specific areas of biology.

BIOL 412: Biotechnology and Tissue Culture Techniques with Lab (Cr. 3)

This course introduces students to the principles of genetic engineering, cell and tissue culture, and their contributions to the development of modern agricultural biotechnology. Special emphasis is on the agricultural and industrial applications of plant cell and tissue culture.

 

Medical Laboratory Sciences

MLSC 221: Body Fluids (Cr.2)

The characteristics of urine, CSF, and semen in health and disease are discussed. Processing and examining of these fluids are also emphasized. Prerequisite: BIOL 141

MLSC 241: Clinical Hematology (Cr. 4)

The origin of blood cells, their differentiation, function, and abnormalities are studied with special emphasis on laboratory diagnostic procedures. Prerequisite: BIOL 141

MLSC 341: Medical Parasitology (Cr. 4)

This course discusses various types of parasites including life cycle, morphology, and diseases. Diagnostic procedures to identify each type in clinical specimens are emphasized. Transmission means of parasites and measures of control and prevention are also discussed. Prerequisite: BIOL 241

MLSC 342: Diagnostic Microbiology (Cr. 4)

The course emphasizes the role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It addresses common procedures in collecting clinical specimens, handling, and processing. The characteristics of pathogenic bacteria, methods of isolation, and identification are also studied. Prerequisite: BIOL 331

MLSC 343: Immunology and Serology (Cr. 4)

This course deals with the biological and biochemical aspects of host resistance, immunity, hypersensitivity, antigen and immune interactions. In addition, this course discusses the principles of serologic testing and application in the diagnosis of infectious and noninfectious diseases. Prerequisite: MLSC 241

MLSC 431: Blood Banking (Cr. 3)

This course introduces methods and techniques used in blood banking including blood grouping, Rh typing, antiglobulin test and cross matching. Donor selection, blood processing, storage and preparation of blood components are studied. Prerequisite: MLSC 241

MLSC 441: Clinical Chemistry (Cr. 4)

This course studies various methods of determination of the analytes of the blood including: carbohydrates, proteins, electrolytes, blood gases, enzymes, non-protein nitrogen compounds, lipids, and lipoproteins. Prerequisite: Biol 341

MLSC 411: Field Training (Cr. 1)

This course in coordination with local hospitals, laboratories, and clinics offers a training period for students for one complete semester.

Biology Department

Dr. Ghassan Handal
Chairperson
ghandal@bethlehem.edu
Tel: +972 2 2741241, Ext: 2271
Fax: +972 2 274 4440

 

Frida Emerezian
Secretary
frida@bethlehem.edu
Tel: +972 2 2741241, Ext.: 2258
Fax: +972 2 274 4440
Bethlehem University Foundation
Email: brds@bufusa.org
Phone: +1-240-241-4381
Fax: +1-240-553-7691
Beltsville, MD USA
Bethlehem University in the Holy Land
E-mail: info@bethlehem.edu
Phone: +972-2-274-1241
Fax: +972-2-274-4440
Bethlehem, Palestine