Bethlehem is an important city rich in its long history. It is the birthplace of Jesus Christ, who was born in the cave on which the Church of the Nativity was built and became the city’s distinctive landmark. Over time, ancient and contemporary cultural landmarks were erected in the city and its geographical surroundings that characterize the cultural, social and political scene. Bethlehem, like other Palestinian cities, contributes to the understanding of the nature of the Palestinian struggle for freedom against Zionist settler colonialism and ethnic cleansing project and Zionist settler colonialism and its political, social and cultural ramification on the scene in the city and its environs. Bethlehem and its surroundings are distinctive for their cultural heritage sites, where various archaeological excavations and numerous research and field studies have been carried out in the field of archaeology and cultural heritage. Therefore, this conference will address multiple themes on the archaeology, heritage, and history of Bethlehem, and will highlight its tangible and intangible heritage, and some related problems that still need to be addressed.