Simulation Lab Overview

Simulation Definition

Simulation is a technique – not a technology – to replace or amplify real patient experiences with guided experiences, artificially contrived, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive manner.

Why Use Simulation?

Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences at Bethlehem University adopts simulation as a training tool and methodology to improve students, individual, learners and team performance. Simulation provides the opportunity to train staff without risk to patients. The ability to frequently practice and manage complex medical scenarios helps to prevent medical errors, while detailed feedback promotes discussion and reinforces the learning process. So, using simulation will help to:

  • Reduces human error
  • Increase learner’s skill development
  • Practice skills in a controlled and safe environment
  • Facilitate on-demand access to patients

Simulation Learning and Training Methods

  1. Curriculum integration: Simulation based education will be integrated in the nursing curriculum and built into learners’ normal training schedules to meet the courses objectives.
  2. Repetitive practice: Repetitive practice involves intense and repetitive learner engagement in a focused, controlled domain. Skill repetition in practice session gives learners opportunities to correct errors, polish their performance and make skill demonstration effortless and automatic.
  3. Providing feedback: Feedback, knowledge of results of one’s performance, is the single most important feature of simulation based medical education.
  4. Range of difficulty: Trainees begin at basic skill levels, demonstrate performance mastery against objective criteria and standards and proceed to training at progressively higher difficulty levels.
  5. Individualized learning: The opportunity for learners to have reproducible standardized educational experiences where they are active participants, not passive bystanders, is an important quality of the use of high fidelity medical simulators.
  6. Defined learning outcomes and measures: Learners are more likely to master key skills if the outcomes are defined and appropriate for their level of training.
  7. Multiple learning strategies: Multiple learning strategies include but are not limited to instructor-centered education involving either large group (e.g. lectures), or small groups (e.g. tutorials), small group and/or individual independent learning with or without an instructor. Of course, optimal use of high fidelity simulations in such different learning situations depends on the educational objectives being addressed and the extent of prior learning among trainees.

Simulation Scenarios

Simulating case scenarios involves active participation for all students. All students and faculty will adhere to the simulation center policies and regulations. Manikins are to be used with respect and treated as if they were live patients. The simulation lab is a learning environment. Students involved in simulated scenarios should have everyone’s respect and attention. Situations simulated in the lab are to be used as a learning tool and no discussion of the actions of fellow students should take place outside of the lab. A debriefing session will be provided for all simulation experiences. After the debriefing session, the student will have the opportunity to reflect on the situation and to provide constructive criticism for further enhancement of the simulation.

What is Debriefing?

The debriefing session involves the immediate feedback and a reflective critical thinking analysis and communication tool for participants of the simulation exercise. The purpose of the debriefing assessment provides an intense post conference and active evaluation process driven by instructors and peers. The focus of the debriefing should be on positive aspects and should allow the student to answer critical thinking questions.

Skills may be taught with simulation?

Skills that may taught with simulation include but not limited to:

  • Assessment and decision making skills
  • Communication skills
  • Hemodynamic monitoring skills
  • Appropriate and affective behavior
  • Multiple airway management skills including:
  1. Oral and Nasal tracheal intubation
  2. Endotracheal intubation
  3. Needle cricothyrotomy
  4. Laryngeal mask airway insertion
  5. Suctioning techniques
  • Simulated spontaneous normal/abnormal breath sounds
  • Breathing Complications and management:
  1. Cyanosis
  2. Needle thoracentesis – bilateral
  3. Uni/bilateral chest movements/lobar breath sounds
  • Oxygen Therapy
  • Chest tube insertion
  • NG/OG Tube insertion
  • Male/Female Urinary Catheterization
  • Enema simulation
  • Oral & Denture care
  • IM/SC injections
  • Wound Dressing
  • Ostomy care
  • Breast & Testicular Examination
  • Drug Administration and Vascular Access:
  1. IV insertion and access
  2. Intraosseous access (tibia and sternum)
  3. Automatic drug recognition System
  • Quality CPR performance: Basic & Advance Life Support
  1. CPR compressions
  2. Realistic compression depth and resistance
  3. Detection of depth, release and frequency of compressions
  4. Real time feedback on quality of CPR
  • Cardiac Related Skills:
  1. Normal & Abnormal Heart sounds
  2. ECG rhythms
  3. Defibrillation capabilities (25-360 joules)
  • Circulatory Skills:
  1. BP measurement
  2. Carotid, femoral, brachial, radial, dorsalis pedis, popliteal and posterior tibialis pulses.
  3. Pulses synchronized with ECG (pulse palpation detected and logged)
  4. Pulse strength variable with BP
  • Eyes features:
  1. Blinking normal and abnormal
  2. Open, close and partial
  3. Evaluation of pupils size, response and equality.
  • Other Features such as:
  1. Seizure
  2. Bleeding
  3. Secretions eyes, ears, nose, mouth, blood, mucous, cerebrospinal fluids
  4. Diaphoresis and Urine output
  5. Bowel sounds
  6. Patient voices